A Book Review: Endangered languages


Reaview of the book ” Ethnologue Reprt of Language of the World: “Endangered languages”.

473 of the languages listed in the Ethnologue are classified as nearly extinct. They are classified in this way when “only a few elderly speakers are still living.” The entries below give just the known population information. Click on “More information” to see the full entry for the language.

More about Endangered Languages


Africa

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Chad

Ethiopia

Guinea

Kenya

Nigeria

Somalia

South Africa

  • N|u. 12 (2005 Crawhall), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 (1998 Nigel Crawhall, South African San Institute). More information.
  • Tsotsitaal. Had tens of thousands of primary users; hundreds of thousands of L2 users (Gilbert and Makhudu 1984). More information.
  • Xiri. 87 in South Africa (2000). Population total all countries: 187. More information.

Sudan


The Americas

Argentina

Bolivia

  • Baure. 13 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 631 (Adelaar 2000). More information.
  • Itonama. 10 (2000 Crevels). Ethnic population: 5,090 (Adelaar 2000). More information.
  • Leco. 20 (2001 S. van de Kerke). Ethnic population: 80 (Adelaar 2000). More information.
  • Pacahuara. 17 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 18 (Adelaar 2000). More information.
  • Uru. 2 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 142 (Adelaar 2000). More information.

Brazil

Canada

  • Abnaki, Western. 5 (2006 P. Tamburro). Some L1 speakers only passively retain the language and (or) are semi fluent. Ethnic population: 1,800 including Eastern Abnaki in USA (1982 SIL). More information.
  • Bella Coola. 20 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 700 (Kinkade 1991). More information.
  • Chinook Wawa. 83 in Canada (1962). Population total all countries: 100. More information.
  • Haida, Northern. 30 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Population of 270 reported in Canada Census 2001 may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Population total all countries: 45. Ethnic population: 1,100 in Canada (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Haida, Southern. 10 (Krauss 1995). Population of 270 reported in Canada Census 2001 may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Ethnic population: 500 (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Haisla. 25 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Han. 7 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 300. More information.
  • Kutenai. 6 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Population total all countries: 12. More information.
  • Maritime Sign Language. More information.
  • Munsee. 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991). More information.
  • Salish, Straits. 20 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 3,020 (2001 Census). More information.
  • Sarsi. 50 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Sechelt. 40 (1990 D. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 550 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Sekani. 35 (1997 S. Hargus). Ethnic population: 600 (1982 SIL and 1997 S. Hargus). More information.
  • Squamish. 15 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 2,300. More information.
  • Tagish. 2 (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 400 possibly (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Tahltan. 35 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Tanana, Upper. 10 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 40 (1995 M. Krauss). More information.
  • Tuscarora. 7 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Population total all countries: 11. More information.

Chile

Colombia

  • Providencia Sign Language. 19. Known by most people on the Island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (W. Washabaugh 1986). More information.
  • Tinigua. 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. More information.
  • Totoro. 4 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Ethnic population: 4,130. More information.
  • Tunebo, Angosturas. 50. More information.

Costa Rica

  • Boruca. 5 (1986 SIL). 30 to 35 nonfluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1991). More information.

Ecuador

El Salvador

Guatemala

Guyana

Honduras

  • Lenca. Only a few in Honduras (Rivas 1993). Ethnic population: 100,000. More information.

Mexico

Nicaragua

  • Rama. 24 (1989 J. Holm). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 C. Grinevald). More information.

Panama

Peru

Suriname

United States

  • Achumawi. 16 (2000 census). 8 nonfluent speakers (2000). Ethnic population: 1,000. More information.
  • Ahtena. 35 (2000 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Apache, Kiowa. 18 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Apache, Lipan. 2 (1981 R. Young). Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Arikara. 20 (1997 D. Parks), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census). More information.
  • Atsugewi. 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Caddo. 25 (1997 W. Chafe). No monolinguals (2000 Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). More information.
  • Cahuilla. 14 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 15 (2000 census). More information.
  • Chetco. 5 (1962 W. Chafe), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100 possibly (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Chinook. 12 (1996), decreasing. Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census). More information.
  • Chinook Wawa. 17 in United States (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 119 (2000 census). More information.
  • Clallam. 10 (1997 T. Montler), decreasing. Ethnic population: Several thousands (1997 T. Montler). More information.
  • Coeur d’Alene. 5 (1999 R. McDonald). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Columbia-Wenatchi. 75 (1990 M. Kinkade). 39 Columbia speakers(1990 census). Ethnic population: 500 possibly (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Coos. 1 (1962 W. Chafe). Ethnic population: 250 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Degexit’an. 25 (1997 S. Hargus), decreasing. Ethnic population: 250 to 300 (Krauss 1997); 19 (2000 census). More information.
  • Gros Ventre. 10 (1977 SIL), decreasing. Very few semispeakers in 2000 (2001 I. Goddard). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). More information.
  • Haida, Northern. 15 in United States (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 600 in the USA (Krauss 1995); 130 (2000 US census). More information.
  • Han. 7 in United States (Krauss 1995). Population total all countries: 14. Ethnic population: 40 (2000 census). More information.
  • Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language. A few users from about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii (1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard-of-hearing people in Hawaii (1998 Honolulu Advertiser). More information.
  • Ho-Chunk. 11 (2004), decreasing. 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 V. Zeps). 822 enrolled in Nebraska (1968 BIA). More information.
  • Holikachuk. 12 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 200 (1995 M. Krauss). More information.
  • Hupa. 8 (1998 J. Brook), decreasing. Ethnic population: 223 (2000 census). More information.
  • Kalapuya. 1 (1962 W. Chafe). More information.
  • Kalispel-Pend D’oreille. 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend D’oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 US census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). More information.
  • Kansa. 19 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 74 (2000 census). More information.
  • Karok. 10 (1997 W. Bright), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 335 (2000 census). More information.
  • Kashaya. 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More information.
  • Kawaiisu. 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150–250 (2005 J. Turner). More information.
  • Klamath-Modoc. 1 (1998). Ethnic population: 165 (2000 census). More information.
  • Kuskokwim, Upper. 40 (1995 M. Krauss), decreasing. 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (1995 M. Krauss). More information.
  • Kutenai. 6 in United States, decreasing. Ethnic population: 359 (2000 census). More information.
  • Luiseño. 35 (2000 L. Hinton), decreasing. 39 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Lushootseed. 60 (1990 M. Kinkade), decreasing. Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1990 M. Kinkade). More information.
  • Maidu, Northeast. 2 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 110 (2000 census). More information.
  • Maidu, Northwest. 4 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Mandan. 6 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 130 in USA (2000 census). More information.
  • Menominee. 39, decreasing. Ethnic population: 799 (2000 census). More information.
  • Miwok, Central Sierra. 12. 6 Eastern Central Sierra, 6 Western Central Sierra (1994 L. Hinton); Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: Possibly 5,000 all Miwok (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Miwok, Lake. 2 (1994 L. Hinton). More information.
  • Miwok, Northern Sierra. 6 (1994 L. Hinton). US Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Central [csm] and Southern [skd]. More information.
  • Miwok, Plains. 1 (1962 H. Landar in Sebeok 1977). More information.
  • Miwok, Southern Sierra. 7 (1994 L. Hinton). Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Central [csm] and Northern [nsq]. More information.
  • Mono. 39 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. 10 to 12 North Fork, 15 Auberry, 7 to 8 Big Sandy, 5 to 6 Dunlap, no Waksachi. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 103 (2000 US census). More information.
  • Nisenan. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). More information.
  • Osage. 5 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 15,000 (1997 C. Quintero); 249 (2000 US census). More information.
  • Pawnee. 20 (1997 J. Parks). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 J. Parks); 79 (2000 census). More information.
  • Pomo, Central. 4 (1997 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 4,766 (1997 M. Mithun); 255 (2000 census). More information.
  • Pomo, Southeastern. 5 (1994 L. Hinton). More information.
  • Pomo, Southern. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). More information.
  • Quapaw. 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 159 (2000 census). More information.
  • Quileute. 10 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Salish, Straits. More information.
  • Serrano. 1 (1994 C. Coker). More information.
  • Snohomish. 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Spokane. 50 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Tanacross. 35 (1997 G. Holton). 3 in Healy Lake dialect, 32 in Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Ethnic population: 120 (1997 G. Holton). More information.
  • Tanaina. 75 (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 900 (Krauss 1997); 40 (2000 census). More information.
  • Tanana, Lower. 30 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 380 (1995 M. Krauss). More information.
  • Tanana, Upper. 14 in United States (2000 census). Population total all countries: 24. Ethnic population: 300 in the USA (1995). More information.
  • Timbisha. 20. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin). More information.
  • Tolowa. 4 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Tübatulabal. 6. Ethnic population: 900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Tuscarora. 4 in United States (1997 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 1,200 in the USA (1997 M. Mithun). More information.
  • Tututni. 10 (1962 W. Chafe). More information.
  • Umatilla. 50 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Wasco-Wishram. 69 (1990 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 possibly (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Washo. 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Wichita. 1 (2008). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 D. Rood). More information.
  • Wintu. 5 (1997 A. Shepherd). 30 Nomlaki and 15 Wintun use it in the home(2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,244 (1997 A. Shepherd). More information.
  • Wyandot. 24. US Census (2000) counts those who use it in the home. Ethnic population: 3,200 (1997 B. Pearson). More information.
  • Yokuts. 25 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. All were Northern Foothill Yokuts speakers. Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information.
  • Yuchi. 50 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). More information.
  • Yurok. 12. US Census (2000) lists 279 who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,500 possibly (1982 SIL). More information.

Venezuela


Asia

Afghanistan

Armenia

Cambodia

  • Samre. 50 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley). More information.

China

East Timor

India

Indonesia (Java and Bali)

Indonesia (Kalimantan)

Indonesia (Maluku)

Indonesia (Papua)

Israel

Japan

  • Ainu. 15 in Japan (1996 A. Vovin). Ethnic population: 15,000 in Japan. More information.

Laos

Malaysia (Peninsular)

Malaysia (Sarawak)

Nepal

Philippines

  • Agta, Alabat Island. 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 75. More information.
  • Agta, Isarog. 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). More information.
  • Arta. 15 (2000 S. Wurm). 12 in Villa Santiago, 1 in Villa Gracia, 3 or 4 in Nagtipunan (1992 L. Reid). Ethnic population: 150. More information.
  • Ata. 4 (2000 S. Wurm). More information.
  • Ayta, Sorsogon. 18 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 180. More information.
  • Ratagnon. 2 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). More information.

Russian Federation (Asia)

  • Aleut, Mednyj. 10 (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Enets, Forest. 20. Of the 20 speakers, 15 are in Potapovo. Ethnic population: 198 with Tundra Enets (2002 census). More information.
  • Enets, Tundra. 10. Of the 10 speakers, 6 are in Vorontsovo and 3 in Karepovsk (Khanina and Shluinsky 2005: 4, 9). Ethnic population: 198 together with Forest Enets (2002 census). More information.
  • Karagas. 28 (2001). Ethnic population: 730 (1989 census). More information.
  • Ket. 190. Ethnic population: 1,494. More information.
  • Udihe. 230. Ethnic population: 1,657. More information.
  • Yugh. 2 or 3 (1991 G. Verner in Kibrik). Ethnic population: 19 (2002 Census). More information.
  • Yukaghir, Southern. 30 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 130 (1995 M. Krauss, 1989 census). More information.

Syria

Taiwan

Thailand

Viet Nam


Europe

Greece

Latvia

Norway

Poland

Russian Federation (Europe)

Sweden

  • Saami, Pite. 20 in Sweden (2000 T. Salminen). Ethnic population: 2,000 in Sweden (Krauss 1995). More information.
  • Saami, Ume. 20 (2000 T. Salminen). Probably no speakers in Norway. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Krauss 1995). More information.

Ukraine


The Pacific

Australia

Micronesia

New Caledonia

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Solomon Islands

Vanuatu

ORIGINAL SOURCE OF INFORMATION: http://www.ethnologue.com/nearly_extinct.asp

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